Article 94

Duties of the flag State

     1.     Every State shall effectively exercise its jurisdiction and control  in administrative, technical and social matters over ships flying its  flag.

     2.     In particular every State shall:

             (a) maintain a register of ships containing the names and particulars of ships flying its flag, except those which are excluded from generally accepted international regulations on account of their small  size; and

             (b) assume jurisdiction under its internal law over each ship flying  its flag and its master, officers and crew in respect of adminis trative, technical and social matters concerning the ship.

     3.     Every State shall take such measures for ships flying its flag as  are necessary to ensure safety at sea with regard, inter alia, to:

             (a) the construction, equipment and seaworthiness of ships;

             (b) the manning of ships, labour conditions and the training of crews, taking into account the applicable international instruments;

             (c) the use of signals, the maintenance of communications and the prevention of collisions.

     4.     Such measures shall include those necessary to ensure:

                (a) that each ship, before registration and thereafter at appropriate intervals, is surveyed by a qualified surveyor of ships, and has on board such charts, nautical publications and navigational equipment and instruments as are appropriate for the safe navigation of the ship

                (b) that each ship is in the charge of a master and officers who possess appropriate qualifications, in particular in seamanship, navigation, communications and marine engineering, and that the crew is appropriate in qualification and numbers for the type, size, machinery and equipment of the ship;

                (c) that the master, officers and, to the extent appropriate, the crew are fully conversant with and required to observe the applicable international regulations concerning the safety of life at sea, the prevention of collisions, the prevention, reduction and control of marine pollution, and the maintenance of communications by radio.

        5.     In taking the measures called for in paragraphs 3 and 4 each State  is required to conform to generally accepted international regulations, procedures and practices and to take any steps which may be necessary to secure their observance.

        6.     A State which has clear grounds to believe that proper jurisdiction and control with respect to a ship have not been exercised may report the facts to the flag State. Upon receiving such a report, the flag State shall investigate the matter and, if appropriate, take any action necessary to remedy the situation.

        7.     Each State shall cause an inquiry to be held by or before a suitably qualified person or persons into every marine casualty or incident of navigation on the high seas involving a ship flying its flag and causing loss of life or serious injury to nationals of another State or serious damage to ships or installations of another State or to the marine environment. The flag State and the other State shall co-operate in the conduct of any inquiry held by that other State into any such marine casualty or incident of navigation.